DIAMOND TOOLS GETTING THE MOST FOR YOUR MONEY
HOW DIAMOND TOOLS WORK
Getting the Most from your Diamond Tools (171kb)
UKAM Industrial Superhard Tools manufactures precision diamond tools for a large variety of applications, materials, and industries.
Bonded Diamond Tools are “impregnated” with diamonds. This means that
selected diamonds are mixed and sintered with specific metal alloys (such as iron,
cobalt, nickel, bronze, and over 200 other components in various combinations).
To achieve the best cutting performance possible on any materials such as
sapphire, glass, granite, tile and etc. The metal bond surrounding the diamonds
must wear away to continuously keep re-exposing the diamonds for the diamond
tool to continue cutting.
is the hardest material known to man kind. When used on tools, diamond grinds
away material on micro (nano) level.
Diamond is the hardest material known to man kind. When used on tools, diamond grinds away material on micro (nano) level.
the tool becomes overheated, the metal bond does not wear away, instead it
“glazes over” the diamond. Hence coating or covering the diamond. The
metal bond then becomes the cutting agent rather than the diamond.
Generating more heat. The diamond tool will eventually chip the material
or break it, due to excessive heat build up in material. Same heat may
damage the diamond tool itself, by causing heat cracks in the diamond
This has been a frequent problem with most conventional diamond tools. Much of this has been resolved with the introduction of SMART CUT™ technology. Advanced technology, that redefines the standard in cutting and drilling. Diamonds are oriented and evenly distributed inside the metal matrix, so that every diamond is better able to participate in the cutting action.
SELECTING THE RIGHT DIAMOND TOOL FOR YOUR APPLICATION
MATERIALS - APPLICATIONS - EQUIPMENT
In order to help you select the right diamond tool for your application, our staff may ask you many questions about the material you wish to machine. These questions will specifically focus on:
a.) material being machined
b.) how you plan to machine it
c.) equipment you will be using
d.) RPM of that machine
e.) Coolants used
may wonder why we need to know this information? Each diamond tool is designed
specifically for each application, and hence may react differently under
different conditions. What worked for one application, may not work for another.
Yet, there is one thing all diamond tools have in common: They are metal based
products being used to cut either metals or hard materials. There use generates
friction, which in turn can generate heat. Doing so, may damage your diamond
KEY VARIABLES IN DIAMOND TOOL PERFORMANCE
In order to prevent this from occurring, there a number of basic procedures you can follow that will allow each diamond tool to operate successfully no matter what material you are machining.
BASIC PROCEDURES YOU SHOULD FOLLOW WHEN USING DIAMOND TOOLS
we realize than in many circumstances, there are a variety of factors that may
prevent you from following all the suggested procedures. And not all jobs or
operations can be done in a controlled environment such as a shop or lab. Nor
all equipment on the market can be adjusted to suitably accommodate a diamond
you will find the best performance will be achieved by following these
guidelines as closely as possible. Also see (PDF) file…
the right diamond tool for your application
as much information possible about your application and material being machined.
We can help you better define your needs, so you can obtain the right tool for
the job. Saving money and time.
the right RPM’S
the RPM on your equipment runs either too fast or too slow, excessive heat will
be generated. Hence damaging your diamond tool. Charts provided in this manual
will help you identify and select the right RPM’s for your diamond tools. As
well as provide suggestions on ways you can achieve it.
the right coolant at point of contact
on your application, there is a large variety of coolants you can select.
Ranging from plain water, to water soluble coolants, to minerals and oils. Your
specific application will be a determining factor in selecting a coolant. Not
matter what coolant you decide to use, make sure it is used at the point of
contact where material and tool intersect.
Find out more: Diamond
Find out more: Diamond Tool Coolants
diamonds thoroughly exposed at all times
your new diamond tools before usage. Make sure to frequently redress your
diamond tool while using it. Always use a recommended dressing stick.
Find out more: Dressing
Find out more: Dressing Sticks
the right diamond tool accessories
cutting, use the right size flanges or wheel stiffener sets with all thin
diamond blades to firmly hold it in place. This will help prevent the blade from
“walking”. Use Drill Head Assemblies (water swivel
adapters) with core drills to provide coolant (water) through the center of
the drill and on to drilling zone.
of the most critical factors in successful diamond tool usage is the right RPM’s.
If the diamond tool rotates to slow, it drags and creates heat. If it spins to
fast, it causes friction and again generates heat. Heat is the worst enemy for a
diamond tool. Selecting the right RPM becomes a critical factor of success.
Unfortunately, this can also be the most difficult aspect of cutting or drilling
to correct. Unless you have a machine with variable speed capability, most
machines will only run at 1,725 to 3,450 RPM. Diamond tools frequently require
RPM’s from 100 to 23,000.
you use diamond tools on a regular basis, you may want to consider altering your
machinery to accommodate variable speed capability. Using diamond tools at
incorrect RPM’S will effect their performance. Causing excessive heat
generation, warping, walking, and breakage. Frequent dressing, using right
coolants, and using right flange sizes or wheel stiffeners can help. But will
not completely substitute for correct RPM’s.
Find out more: Diamond
Find out more: Diamond Machining Equipment
To determine the correct RPM’s for the optimum performance of your diamond tool, you mush know the Surface Feet per Minute (SFPM) required to machine your material. The following “Guide to Operating Speeds for Diamond Tools” calculator includes a broad range of materials and the Surface Feet per Minute (SFPM) required to cut them. Input the SFPM needed, input the size of the blade or drill and calculate the SFPM or RPM you need to use with that tool.
Guide to Operating Speeds for Diamond Tools
Material Recommended Surface Feet per Minute
Other Lapidary Rocks 1900-3100
Silicon Nitride 3050-4100
Hard Ceramics 4000-5650
Natural Quartz 4200-6000
Hard Glass 4300-6300
Fused Quartz 4500-6500
Medium Hard Glass 4250-7250
Hard Granite 5050-6250
Wall Tile 5250-6500
Hard Marble 5650-6750
Medium Hard Marble 6050-8000
Light Weight Refractory 8800-11900
AND DIAMOND TOOLS
Oil is not a proper coolant, as most
other diamond tool manufacturers would suggest. Water is a true organic coolant,
which does not leave the material being machined oily, greasy, or contaminated.
does turn to steam at temperatures exceeding 212 degrees Fahrenheit. So, adding
a nonsudsing detergent will help water provide more lubricity and serve longer
as a coolant. Occasionally, it may be necessary to mover from water to water
soluble coolants. Such as when machining harder and more dense materials.
coolants cannot be used, a resin bond or electroplated (nickel bonded)
diamond product may be a solution. It is also important to remember that coolant
must be delivered at the point of contact where the diamond tool and material
intersect. When a diamond tool is turning at the right RPM’s, momentum will
throw the coolant out and away from the point of contact. When the diamond tool
begins to rotate, and coolant is not delivered as close as possible to the point
of contact, Heat will begin to generate, and the diamond tool will “glaze over”
with the bond no longer allowing diamonds to perform the cutting action.
tools must be both trued to and dressed on the machine on which it will be used.
This will guarantee two things:
a.) diamonds will be thoroughly exposed
diamond tool will be “true in running (T.I.R.)” on your machine
that every machine runs differently. And even if the diamond tool is trued at
the factory, it can still “run-out” of tolerance when you place it on your
machine. Blades must e trued and drills must be indicated in. Truing a tool is
the operation of squaring a tool so it runs within your tolerances. This may be
done with a hard stone that will knock diamonds out. This operation differs from
dressing. It is still necessary to dress the tool after truing as the diamonds
will no longer be sticking-up.
truing the diamond tool, it is important to dress it to make sure the diamonds
are exposed. The diamonds must be sticking up “exposed” from the bond
matrix. If this is not accomplished, you will experience difficulty with your
new diamond tool. A diamond tool that is thoroughly dressed will have diamond
“tails” extending from the back of the diamond. Your diamond tool is now “directional”.
This means it should always run in the direction the leading edge of the
diamond, away from the tail. So the sharper, leading edge of the diamond can
achieve desired cutting action.
the dressing stick is too hard, it will “knock the diamonds out”. UKAM
Industrial Superhard Tools can provide the proper dressing stick to avoid this
problem. The more diamonds are exposed, the better the performance of the
diamond tool. We recommend you give your new diamond tool the “Thumb Nail Test”.
After thoroughly dressing the blade, you should be able to snag your thumb nail
on the diamonds. This will let you know they are sticking up in order to cut
properly. After using your diamond tool for a while, it may seem to cut more
slowly or begin to chip your material. This is because the diamonds are not
Find out more: Dressing
Find out more: Dressing Sticks
force your diamond tool. If you
a.) “resistance” in cutting
b.) diamond tool is not cutting as easily
diamond tool is lowing down
is important to stop and dress the wheel again. Following the same procedure as
before. This will restore the blade to it’s original condition. Depending on
the material to be cut, this procedure will be need to be repeated. Without
proper dressing, your blade will stop cutting. Hence breaking or shipping your
material or tool. This is because you are no longer cutting with diamonds, but
instead using metal bond to do the cutting.
THE RIGHT DIAMOND TOOL ACCESSORIES
some materials, you may find yourself using a very thin diamond blade to cut
into the material. You may wish to avoid the “resistance” of a thicker lade,
need to hold tight tolerances or you are cutting an expensive piece of material,
where minimum loss is critical. Even though your cut may not be very deep, your
machine may only accommodate a specific blade diameter. When your blade cuts
into your material, it may not have the rigidity to maintain the tolerance. The
blade may begin to walk. Although we use special alloy steel cores to minimize
this problem. We suggest you insure maximum performance from your new diamond
blade by using wheel stiffener sets to provide an extra degree of rigidity to
the blade. Helping it run true. Wheel stiffener sets should be used at 2/3 rd’s
the outside diameter of the Diamond blade and can be manufactured in all sizes
Find out more: Diamond
Find out more: Diamond Wheel Stiffeners
To achieve optimum performance when using diamond core drills, water should be used down the center of the drill. We recommend that sealed bearing Drill Head Assembly (water swivel adapter) be used. Using a water swivel adapter helps your drills last up to 75% longer and minimizes material deformation and cracks associated with overheating.
We manufacture a large variety of water swivel adapter Models to accommodate different collets, chuck sizes, and thread sizes on the market. Water down the center of the drill also insures that the diamond section has a constant flow of coolant to keep maximum amount of diamonds exposed.
It's time you expect MORE from your tools.
What you should know before you buy your next diamond tool?
UKAM Industrial Superhard Tools Division of LEL Diamond Tools International, Inc.
28231 Avenue Crocker, Unit 80 Valencia, CA 91355 Phone: (661) 257-2288 Fax: (661) 257-3833